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+<?php
+
+/**
+ * @file
+ * Field CRUD API, handling field and field instance creation and deletion.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * @defgroup field_crud Field CRUD API
+ * @{
+ * Create, update, and delete Field API fields, bundles, and instances.
+ *
+ * Modules use this API, often in hook_install(), to create custom
+ * data structures. UI modules will use it to create a user interface.
+ *
+ * The Field CRUD API uses
+ * @link field Field API data structures @endlink.
+ *
+ * See @link field Field API @endlink for information about the other parts of
+ * the Field API.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Creates a field.
+ *
+ * This function does not bind the field to any bundle; use
+ * field_create_instance() for that.
+ *
+ * @param $field
+ * A field definition array. The field_name and type properties are required.
+ * Other properties, if omitted, will be given the following default values:
+ * - cardinality: 1
+ * - locked: FALSE
+ * - indexes: the field-type indexes, specified by the field type's
+ * hook_field_schema(). The indexes specified in $field are added
+ * to those default indexes. It is possible to override the
+ * definition of a field-type index by providing an index with the
+ * same name, or to remove it by redefining it as an empty array
+ * of columns. Overriding field-type indexes should be done
+ * carefully, for it might seriously affect the site's performance.
+ * - settings: each omitted setting is given the default value defined in
+ * hook_field_info().
+ * - storage:
+ * - type: the storage backend specified in the 'field_storage_default'
+ * system variable.
+ * - settings: each omitted setting is given the default value specified in
+ * hook_field_storage_info().
+ *
+ * @return
+ * The $field array with the id property filled in.
+ *
+ * @throws FieldException
+ *
+ * See: @link field Field API data structures @endlink.
+ */
+function field_create_field($field) {
+ // Field name is required.
+ if (empty($field['field_name'])) {
+ throw new FieldException('Attempt to create an unnamed field.');
+ }
+ // Field type is required.
+ if (empty($field['type'])) {
+ throw new FieldException('Attempt to create a field with no type.');
+ }
+ // Field name cannot contain invalid characters.
+ if (!preg_match('/^[_a-z]+[_a-z0-9]*$/', $field['field_name'])) {
+ throw new FieldException('Attempt to create a field with invalid characters. Only lowercase alphanumeric characters and underscores are allowed, and only lowercase letters and underscore are allowed as the first character');
+ }
+
+ // Field name cannot be longer than 32 characters. We use drupal_strlen()
+ // because the DB layer assumes that column widths are given in characters,
+ // not bytes.
+ if (drupal_strlen($field['field_name']) > 32) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to create a field with a name longer than 32 characters: %name',
+ array('%name' => $field['field_name'])));
+ }
+
+ // Ensure the field name is unique over active and disabled fields.
+ // We do not care about deleted fields.
+ $prior_field = field_read_field($field['field_name'], array('include_inactive' => TRUE));
+ if (!empty($prior_field)) {
+ $message = $prior_field['active']?
+ t('Attempt to create field name %name which already exists and is active.', array('%name' => $field['field_name'])):
+ t('Attempt to create field name %name which already exists, although it is inactive.', array('%name' => $field['field_name']));
+ throw new FieldException($message);
+ }
+
+ // Disallow reserved field names. This can't prevent all field name
+ // collisions with existing entity properties, but some is better
+ // than none.
+ foreach (entity_get_info() as $type => $info) {
+ if (in_array($field['field_name'], $info['entity keys'])) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to create field name %name which is reserved by entity type %type.', array('%name' => $field['field_name'], '%type' => $type)));
+ }
+ }
+
+ $field += array(
+ 'entity_types' => array(),
+ 'cardinality' => 1,
+ 'translatable' => FALSE,
+ 'locked' => FALSE,
+ 'settings' => array(),
+ 'storage' => array(),
+ 'deleted' => 0,
+ );
+
+ // Check that the field type is known.
+ $field_type = field_info_field_types($field['type']);
+ if (!$field_type) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to create a field of unknown type %type.', array('%type' => $field['type'])));
+ }
+ // Create all per-field-type properties (needed here as long as we have
+ // settings that impact column definitions).
+ $field['settings'] += field_info_field_settings($field['type']);
+ $field['module'] = $field_type['module'];
+ $field['active'] = 1;
+
+ // Provide default storage.
+ $field['storage'] += array(
+ 'type' => variable_get('field_storage_default', 'field_sql_storage'),
+ 'settings' => array(),
+ );
+ // Check that the storage type is known.
+ $storage_type = field_info_storage_types($field['storage']['type']);
+ if (!$storage_type) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to create a field with unknown storage type %type.', array('%type' => $field['storage']['type'])));
+ }
+ // Provide default storage settings.
+ $field['storage']['settings'] += field_info_storage_settings($field['storage']['type']);
+ $field['storage']['module'] = $storage_type['module'];
+ $field['storage']['active'] = 1;
+ // Collect storage information.
+ module_load_install($field['module']);
+ $schema = (array) module_invoke($field['module'], 'field_schema', $field);
+ $schema += array('columns' => array(), 'indexes' => array(), 'foreign keys' => array());
+ // 'columns' are hardcoded in the field type.
+ $field['columns'] = $schema['columns'];
+ // 'foreign keys' are hardcoded in the field type.
+ $field['foreign keys'] = $schema['foreign keys'];
+ // 'indexes' can be both hardcoded in the field type, and specified in the
+ // incoming $field definition.
+ $field += array(
+ 'indexes' => array(),
+ );
+ $field['indexes'] += $schema['indexes'];
+
+ // The serialized 'data' column contains everything from $field that does not
+ // have its own column and is not automatically populated when the field is
+ // read.
+ $data = $field;
+ unset($data['columns'], $data['field_name'], $data['type'], $data['active'], $data['module'], $data['storage_type'], $data['storage_active'], $data['storage_module'], $data['locked'], $data['cardinality'], $data['deleted']);
+ // Additionally, do not save the 'bundles' property populated by
+ // field_info_field().
+ unset($data['bundles']);
+
+ $record = array(
+ 'field_name' => $field['field_name'],
+ 'type' => $field['type'],
+ 'module' => $field['module'],
+ 'active' => $field['active'],
+ 'storage_type' => $field['storage']['type'],
+ 'storage_module' => $field['storage']['module'],
+ 'storage_active' => $field['storage']['active'],
+ 'locked' => $field['locked'],
+ 'data' => $data,
+ 'cardinality' => $field['cardinality'],
+ 'translatable' => $field['translatable'],
+ 'deleted' => $field['deleted'],
+ );
+
+ // Store the field and get the id back.
+ drupal_write_record('field_config', $record);
+ $field['id'] = $record['id'];
+
+ // Invoke hook_field_storage_create_field after the field is
+ // complete (e.g. it has its id).
+ try {
+ // Invoke hook_field_storage_create_field after
+ // drupal_write_record() sets the field id.
+ module_invoke($storage_type['module'], 'field_storage_create_field', $field);
+ }
+ catch (Exception $e) {
+ // If storage creation failed, remove the field_config record before
+ // rethrowing the exception.
+ db_delete('field_config')
+ ->condition('id', $field['id'])
+ ->execute();
+ throw $e;
+ }
+
+ // Clear caches
+ field_cache_clear(TRUE);
+
+ // Invoke external hooks after the cache is cleared for API consistency.
+ module_invoke_all('field_create_field', $field);
+
+ return $field;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Updates a field.
+ *
+ * Any module may forbid any update for any reason. For example, the
+ * field's storage module might forbid an update if it would change
+ * the storage schema while data for the field exists. A field type
+ * module might forbid an update if it would change existing data's
+ * semantics, or if there are external dependencies on field settings
+ * that cannot be updated.
+ *
+ * @param $field
+ * A field structure. $field['field_name'] must provided; it
+ * identifies the field that will be updated to match this
+ * structure. Any other properties of the field that are not
+ * specified in $field will be left unchanged, so it is not
+ * necessary to pass in a fully populated $field structure.
+ * @return
+ * Throws a FieldException if the update cannot be performed.
+ * @see field_create_field()
+ */
+function field_update_field($field) {
+ // Check that the specified field exists.
+ $prior_field = field_read_field($field['field_name']);
+ if (empty($prior_field)) {
+ throw new FieldException('Attempt to update a non-existent field.');
+ }
+
+ // Use the prior field values for anything not specifically set by the new
+ // field to be sure that all values are set.
+ $field += $prior_field;
+ $field['settings'] += $prior_field['settings'];
+
+ // Some updates are always disallowed.
+ if ($field['type'] != $prior_field['type']) {
+ throw new FieldException("Cannot change an existing field's type.");
+ }
+ if ($field['entity_types'] != $prior_field['entity_types']) {
+ throw new FieldException("Cannot change an existing field's entity_types property.");
+ }
+ if ($field['storage']['type'] != $prior_field['storage']['type']) {
+ throw new FieldException("Cannot change an existing field's storage type.");
+ }
+
+ // Collect the new storage information, since what is in
+ // $prior_field may no longer be right.
+ module_load_install($field['module']);
+ $schema = (array) module_invoke($field['module'], 'field_schema', $field);
+ $schema += array('columns' => array(), 'indexes' => array(), 'foreign keys' => array());
+ // 'columns' are hardcoded in the field type.
+ $field['columns'] = $schema['columns'];
+ // 'foreign keys' are hardcoded in the field type.
+ $field['foreign keys'] = $schema['foreign keys'];
+ // 'indexes' can be both hardcoded in the field type, and specified in the
+ // incoming $field definition.
+ $field += array(
+ 'indexes' => array(),
+ );
+ $field['indexes'] += $schema['indexes'];
+
+ $has_data = field_has_data($field);
+
+ // See if any module forbids the update by throwing an exception.
+ foreach (module_implements('field_update_forbid') as $module) {
+ $function = $module . '_field_update_forbid';
+ $function($field, $prior_field, $has_data);
+ }
+
+ // Tell the storage engine to update the field. Do this before
+ // saving the new definition since it still might fail.
+ $storage_type = field_info_storage_types($field['storage']['type']);
+ module_invoke($storage_type['module'], 'field_storage_update_field', $field, $prior_field, $has_data);
+
+ // Save the new field definition. @todo: refactor with
+ // field_create_field.
+
+ // The serialized 'data' column contains everything from $field that does not
+ // have its own column and is not automatically populated when the field is
+ // read.
+ $data = $field;
+ unset($data['columns'], $data['field_name'], $data['type'], $data['locked'], $data['module'], $data['cardinality'], $data['active'], $data['deleted']);
+ // Additionally, do not save the 'bundles' property populated by
+ // field_info_field().
+ unset($data['bundles']);
+
+ $field['data'] = $data;
+
+ // Store the field and create the id.
+ $primary_key = array('id');
+ drupal_write_record('field_config', $field, $primary_key);
+
+ // Clear caches
+ field_cache_clear(TRUE);
+
+ // Invoke external hooks after the cache is cleared for API consistency.
+ module_invoke_all('field_update_field', $field, $prior_field, $has_data);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads a single field record directly from the database.
+ *
+ * Generally, you should use the field_info_field() instead.
+ *
+ * This function will not return deleted fields. Use
+ * field_read_fields() instead for this purpose.
+ *
+ * @param $field_name
+ * The field name to read.
+ * @param array $include_additional
+ * The default behavior of this function is to not return a field that
+ * is inactive. Setting
+ * $include_additional['include_inactive'] to TRUE will override this
+ * behavior.
+ * @return
+ * A field definition array, or FALSE.
+ */
+function field_read_field($field_name, $include_additional = array()) {
+ $fields = field_read_fields(array('field_name' => $field_name), $include_additional);
+ return $fields ? current($fields) : FALSE;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads in fields that match an array of conditions.
+ *
+ * @param array $params
+ * An array of conditions to match against. Keys are columns from the
+ * 'field_config' table, values are conditions to match. Additionally,
+ * conditions on the 'entity_type' and 'bundle' columns from the
+ * 'field_config_instance' table are supported (select fields having an
+ * instance on a given bundle).
+ * @param array $include_additional
+ * The default behavior of this function is to not return fields that
+ * are inactive or have been deleted. Setting
+ * $include_additional['include_inactive'] or
+ * $include_additional['include_deleted'] to TRUE will override this
+ * behavior.
+ * @return
+ * An array of fields matching $params. If
+ * $include_additional['include_deleted'] is TRUE, the array is keyed
+ * by field id, otherwise it is keyed by field name.
+ */
+function field_read_fields($params = array(), $include_additional = array()) {
+ $query = db_select('field_config', 'fc', array('fetch' => PDO::FETCH_ASSOC));
+ $query->fields('fc');
+
+ // Turn the conditions into a query.
+ foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
+ // Allow filtering on the 'entity_type' and 'bundle' columns of the
+ // field_config_instance table.
+ if ($key == 'entity_type' || $key == 'bundle') {
+ if (empty($fci_join)) {
+ $fci_join = $query->join('field_config_instance', 'fci', 'fc.id = fci.field_id');
+ }
+ $key = 'fci.' . $key;
+ }
+ else {
+ $key = 'fc.' . $key;
+ }
+
+ $query->condition($key, $value);
+ }
+
+ if (!isset($include_additional['include_inactive']) || !$include_additional['include_inactive']) {
+ $query
+ ->condition('fc.active', 1)
+ ->condition('fc.storage_active', 1);
+ }
+ $include_deleted = (isset($include_additional['include_deleted']) && $include_additional['include_deleted']);
+ if (!$include_deleted) {
+ $query->condition('fc.deleted', 0);
+ }
+
+ $fields = array();
+ $results = $query->execute();
+ foreach ($results as $record) {
+ $field = unserialize($record['data']);
+ $field['id'] = $record['id'];
+ $field['field_name'] = $record['field_name'];
+ $field['type'] = $record['type'];
+ $field['module'] = $record['module'];
+ $field['active'] = $record['active'];
+ $field['storage']['type'] = $record['storage_type'];
+ $field['storage']['module'] = $record['storage_module'];
+ $field['storage']['active'] = $record['storage_active'];
+ $field['locked'] = $record['locked'];
+ $field['cardinality'] = $record['cardinality'];
+ $field['translatable'] = $record['translatable'];
+ $field['deleted'] = $record['deleted'];
+
+ module_invoke_all('field_read_field', $field);
+
+ // Populate storage information.
+ module_load_install($field['module']);
+ $schema = (array) module_invoke($field['module'], 'field_schema', $field);
+ $schema += array('columns' => array(), 'indexes' => array());
+ $field['columns'] = $schema['columns'];
+
+ $field_name = $field['field_name'];
+ if ($include_deleted) {
+ $field_name = $field['id'];
+ }
+ $fields[$field_name] = $field;
+ }
+ return $fields;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Marks a field and its instances and data for deletion.
+ *
+ * @param $field_name
+ * The field name to delete.
+ */
+function field_delete_field($field_name) {
+ // Delete all non-deleted instances.
+ $field = field_info_field($field_name);
+ if (isset($field['bundles'])) {
+ foreach ($field['bundles'] as $entity_type => $bundles) {
+ foreach ($bundles as $bundle) {
+ $instance = field_info_instance($entity_type, $field_name, $bundle);
+ field_delete_instance($instance, FALSE);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ // Mark field data for deletion.
+ module_invoke($field['storage']['module'], 'field_storage_delete_field', $field);
+
+ // Mark the field for deletion.
+ db_update('field_config')
+ ->fields(array('deleted' => 1))
+ ->condition('field_name', $field_name)
+ ->execute();
+
+ // Clear the cache.
+ field_cache_clear(TRUE);
+
+ module_invoke_all('field_delete_field', $field);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Creates an instance of a field, binding it to a bundle.
+ *
+ * @param $instance
+ * A field instance definition array. The field_name, entity_type and
+ * bundle properties are required. Other properties, if omitted,
+ * will be given the following default values:
+ * - label: the field name
+ * - description: empty string
+ * - required: FALSE
+ * - default_value_function: empty string
+ * - settings: each omitted setting is given the default value specified in
+ * hook_field_info().
+ * - widget:
+ * - type: the default widget specified in hook_field_info().
+ * - settings: each omitted setting is given the default value specified in
+ * hook_field_widget_info().
+ * - display:
+ * Settings for the 'default' view mode will be added if not present, and
+ * each view mode in the definition will be completed with the following
+ * default values:
+ * - label: 'above'
+ * - type: the default formatter specified in hook_field_info().
+ * - settings: each omitted setting is given the default value specified in
+ * hook_field_formatter_info().
+ * View modes not present in the definition are left empty, and the field
+ * will not be displayed in this mode.
+ *
+ * @return
+ * The $instance array with the id property filled in.
+ *
+ * @throws FieldException
+ *
+ * See: @link field Field API data structures @endlink.
+ */
+function field_create_instance($instance) {
+ $field = field_read_field($instance['field_name']);
+ if (empty($field)) {
+ throw new FieldException(t("Attempt to create an instance of a field @field_name that doesn't exist or is currently inactive.", array('@field_name' => $instance['field_name'])));
+ }
+ // Check that the required properties exists.
+ if (empty($instance['entity_type'])) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to create an instance of field @field_name without an entity type.', array('@field_name' => $instance['field_name'])));
+ }
+ if (empty($instance['bundle'])) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to create an instance of field @field_name without a bundle.', array('@field_name' => $instance['field_name'])));
+ }
+ // Check that the field can be attached to this entity type.
+ if (!empty($field['entity_types']) && !in_array($instance['entity_type'], $field['entity_types'])) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to create an instance of field @field_name on forbidden entity type @entity_type.', array('@field_name' => $instance['field_name'], '@entity_type' => $instance['entity_type'])));
+ }
+
+ // Set the field id.
+ $instance['field_id'] = $field['id'];
+
+ // Note that we do *not* prevent creating a field on non-existing bundles,
+ // because that would break the 'Body as field' upgrade for contrib
+ // node types.
+
+ // TODO: Check that the widget type is known and can handle the field type ?
+ // TODO: Check that the formatters are known and can handle the field type ?
+ // TODO: Check that the display view modes are known for the entity type ?
+ // Those checks should probably happen in _field_write_instance() ?
+ // Problem : this would mean that a UI module cannot update an instance with a disabled formatter.
+
+ // Ensure the field instance is unique within the bundle.
+ // We only check for instances of active fields, since adding an instance of
+ // a disabled field is not supported.
+ $prior_instance = field_read_instance($instance['entity_type'], $instance['field_name'], $instance['bundle']);
+ if (!empty($prior_instance)) {
+ $message = t('Attempt to create an instance of field @field_name on bundle @bundle that already has an instance of that field.', array('@field_name' => $instance['field_name'], '@bundle' => $instance['bundle']));
+ throw new FieldException($message);
+ }
+
+ _field_write_instance($instance);
+
+ // Clear caches
+ field_cache_clear();
+
+ // Invoke external hooks after the cache is cleared for API consistency.
+ module_invoke_all('field_create_instance', $instance);
+
+ return $instance;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Updates an instance of a field.
+ *
+ * @param $instance
+ * An associative array representing an instance structure. The following
+ * required array elements specify which field instance is being updated:
+ * - entity_type: The type of the entity the field is attached to.
+ * - bundle: The bundle this field belongs to.
+ * - field_name: The name of an existing field.
+ * The other array elements represent properties of the instance, and all
+ * properties must be specified or their default values will be used (except
+ * internal-use properties, which are assigned automatically). To avoid
+ * losing the previously stored properties of the instance when making a
+ * change, first load the instance with field_info_instance(), then override
+ * the values you want to override, and finally save using this function.
+ * Example:
+ * @code
+ * // Fetch an instance info array.
+ * $instance_info = field_info_instance($entity_type, $field_name, $bundle_name);
+ * // Change a single property in the instance definition.
+ * $instance_info['definition']['required'] = TRUE;
+ * // Write the changed definition back.
+ * field_update_instance($instance_info['definition']);
+ * @endcode
+ *
+ * @throws FieldException
+ *
+ * @see field_info_instance()
+ * @see field_create_instance()
+ */
+function field_update_instance($instance) {
+ // Check that the specified field exists.
+ $field = field_read_field($instance['field_name']);
+ if (empty($field)) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to update an instance of a nonexistent field @field.', array('@field' => $instance['field_name'])));
+ }
+
+ // Check that the field instance exists (even if it is inactive, since we
+ // want to be able to replace inactive widgets with new ones).
+ $prior_instance = field_read_instance($instance['entity_type'], $instance['field_name'], $instance['bundle'], array('include_inactive' => TRUE));
+ if (empty($prior_instance)) {
+ throw new FieldException(t("Attempt to update an instance of field @field on bundle @bundle that doesn't exist.", array('@field' => $instance['field_name'], '@bundle' => $instance['bundle'])));
+ }
+
+ $instance['id'] = $prior_instance['id'];
+ $instance['field_id'] = $prior_instance['field_id'];
+
+ _field_write_instance($instance, TRUE);
+
+ // Clear caches.
+ field_cache_clear();
+
+ module_invoke_all('field_update_instance', $instance, $prior_instance);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Stores an instance record in the field configuration database.
+ *
+ * @param $instance
+ * An instance structure.
+ * @param $update
+ * Whether this is a new or existing instance.
+ */
+function _field_write_instance($instance, $update = FALSE) {
+ $field = field_read_field($instance['field_name']);
+ $field_type = field_info_field_types($field['type']);
+
+ // Set defaults.
+ $instance += array(
+ 'settings' => array(),
+ 'display' => array(),
+ 'widget' => array(),
+ 'required' => FALSE,
+ 'label' => $instance['field_name'],
+ 'description' => '',
+ 'deleted' => 0,
+ );
+
+ // Set default instance settings.
+ $instance['settings'] += field_info_instance_settings($field['type']);
+
+ // Set default widget and settings.
+ $instance['widget'] += array(
+ // TODO: what if no 'default_widget' specified ?
+ 'type' => $field_type['default_widget'],
+ 'settings' => array(),
+ );
+ // If no weight specified, make sure the field sinks at the bottom.
+ if (!isset($instance['widget']['weight'])) {
+ $max_weight = field_info_max_weight($instance['entity_type'], $instance['bundle'], 'form');
+ $instance['widget']['weight'] = isset($max_weight) ? $max_weight + 1 : 0;
+ }
+ // Check widget module.
+ $widget_type = field_info_widget_types($instance['widget']['type']);
+ $instance['widget']['module'] = $widget_type['module'];
+ $instance['widget']['settings'] += field_info_widget_settings($instance['widget']['type']);
+
+ // Make sure there are at least display settings for the 'default' view mode,
+ // and fill in defaults for each view mode specified in the definition.
+ $instance['display'] += array(
+ 'default' => array(),
+ );
+ foreach ($instance['display'] as $view_mode => $display) {
+ $display += array(
+ 'label' => 'above',
+ 'type' => isset($field_type['default_formatter']) ? $field_type['default_formatter'] : 'hidden',
+ 'settings' => array(),
+ );
+ if ($display['type'] != 'hidden') {
+ $formatter_type = field_info_formatter_types($display['type']);
+ $display['module'] = $formatter_type['module'];
+ $display['settings'] += field_info_formatter_settings($display['type']);
+ }
+ // If no weight specified, make sure the field sinks at the bottom.
+ if (!isset($display['weight'])) {
+ $max_weight = field_info_max_weight($instance['entity_type'], $instance['bundle'], $view_mode);
+ $display['weight'] = isset($max_weight) ? $max_weight + 1 : 0;
+ }
+ $instance['display'][$view_mode] = $display;
+ }
+
+ // The serialized 'data' column contains everything from $instance that does
+ // not have its own column and is not automatically populated when the
+ // instance is read.
+ $data = $instance;
+ unset($data['id'], $data['field_id'], $data['field_name'], $data['entity_type'], $data['bundle'], $data['deleted']);
+
+ $record = array(
+ 'field_id' => $instance['field_id'],
+ 'field_name' => $instance['field_name'],
+ 'entity_type' => $instance['entity_type'],
+ 'bundle' => $instance['bundle'],
+ 'data' => $data,
+ 'deleted' => $instance['deleted'],
+ );
+ // We need to tell drupal_update_record() the primary keys to trigger an
+ // update.
+ if ($update) {
+ $record['id'] = $instance['id'];
+ $primary_key = array('id');
+ }
+ else {
+ $primary_key = array();
+ }
+ drupal_write_record('field_config_instance', $record, $primary_key);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads a single instance record from the database.
+ *
+ * Generally, you should use field_info_instance() instead, as it
+ * provides caching and allows other modules the opportunity to
+ * append additional formatters, widgets, and other information.
+ *
+ * @param $entity_type
+ * The type of entity to which the field is bound.
+ * @param $field_name
+ * The field name to read.
+ * @param $bundle
+ * The bundle to which the field is bound.
+ * @param array $include_additional
+ * The default behavior of this function is to not return an instance that
+ * has been deleted, or whose field is inactive. Setting
+ * $include_additional['include_inactive'] or
+ * $include_additional['include_deleted'] to TRUE will override this
+ * behavior.
+ * @return
+ * An instance structure, or FALSE.
+ */
+function field_read_instance($entity_type, $field_name, $bundle, $include_additional = array()) {
+ $instances = field_read_instances(array('entity_type' => $entity_type, 'field_name' => $field_name, 'bundle' => $bundle), $include_additional);
+ return $instances ? current($instances) : FALSE;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads in field instances that match an array of conditions.
+ *
+ * @param $param
+ * An array of properties to use in selecting a field
+ * instance. Valid keys include any column of the
+ * field_config_instance table. If NULL, all instances will be returned.
+ * @param $include_additional
+ * The default behavior of this function is to not return field
+ * instances that have been marked deleted, or whose field is inactive.
+ * Setting $include_additional['include_inactive'] or
+ * $include_additional['include_deleted'] to TRUE will override this
+ * behavior.
+ * @return
+ * An array of instances matching the arguments.
+ */
+function field_read_instances($params = array(), $include_additional = array()) {
+ $include_inactive = isset($include_additional['include_inactive']) && $include_additional['include_inactive'];
+ $include_deleted = isset($include_additional['include_deleted']) && $include_additional['include_deleted'];
+
+ $query = db_select('field_config_instance', 'fci', array('fetch' => PDO::FETCH_ASSOC));
+ $query->join('field_config', 'fc', 'fc.id = fci.field_id');
+ $query->fields('fci');
+
+ // Turn the conditions into a query.
+ foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
+ $query->condition('fci.' . $key, $value);
+ }
+ if (!$include_inactive) {
+ $query
+ ->condition('fc.active', 1)
+ ->condition('fc.storage_active', 1);
+ }
+ if (!$include_deleted) {
+ $query->condition('fc.deleted', 0);
+ $query->condition('fci.deleted', 0);
+ }
+
+ $instances = array();
+ $results = $query->execute();
+
+ foreach ($results as $record) {
+ // Filter out instances on unknown entity types (for instance because the
+ // module exposing them was disabled).
+ $entity_info = entity_get_info($record['entity_type']);
+ if ($include_inactive || $entity_info) {
+ $instance = unserialize($record['data']);
+ $instance['id'] = $record['id'];
+ $instance['field_id'] = $record['field_id'];
+ $instance['field_name'] = $record['field_name'];
+ $instance['entity_type'] = $record['entity_type'];
+ $instance['bundle'] = $record['bundle'];
+ $instance['deleted'] = $record['deleted'];
+
+ module_invoke_all('field_read_instance', $instance);
+ $instances[] = $instance;
+ }
+ }
+ return $instances;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Marks a field instance and its data for deletion.
+ *
+ * @param $instance
+ * An instance structure.
+ * @param $field_cleanup
+ * If TRUE, the field will be deleted as well if its last instance is being
+ * deleted. If FALSE, it is the caller's responsibility to handle the case of
+ * fields left without instances. Defaults to TRUE.
+ */
+function field_delete_instance($instance, $field_cleanup = TRUE) {
+ // Mark the field instance for deletion.
+ db_update('field_config_instance')
+ ->fields(array('deleted' => 1))
+ ->condition('field_name', $instance['field_name'])
+ ->condition('entity_type', $instance['entity_type'])
+ ->condition('bundle', $instance['bundle'])
+ ->execute();
+
+ // Clear the cache.
+ field_cache_clear();
+
+ // Mark instance data for deletion.
+ $field = field_info_field($instance['field_name']);
+ module_invoke($field['storage']['module'], 'field_storage_delete_instance', $instance);
+
+ // Let modules react to the deletion of the instance.
+ module_invoke_all('field_delete_instance', $instance);
+
+ // Delete the field itself if we just deleted its last instance.
+ if ($field_cleanup && count($field['bundles']) == 0) {
+ field_delete_field($field['field_name']);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * @} End of "defgroup field_crud".
+ */
+
+/**
+ * @defgroup field_purge Field API bulk data deletion
+ * @{
+ * Clean up after Field API bulk deletion operations.
+ *
+ * Field API provides functions for deleting data attached to individual
+ * entities as well as deleting entire fields or field instances in a single
+ * operation.
+ *
+ * Deleting field data items for an entity with field_attach_delete() involves
+ * three separate operations:
+ * - Invoking the Field Type API hook_field_delete() for each field on the
+ * entity. The hook for each field type receives the entity and the specific
+ * field being deleted. A file field module might use this hook to delete
+ * uploaded files from the filesystem.
+ * - Invoking the Field Storage API hook_field_storage_delete() to remove
+ * data from the primary field storage. The hook implementation receives the
+ * entity being deleted and deletes data for all of the entity's bundle's
+ * fields.
+ * - Invoking the global Field Attach API hook_field_attach_delete() for all
+ * modules that implement it. Each hook implementation receives the entity
+ * being deleted and can operate on whichever subset of the entity's bundle's
+ * fields it chooses to.
+ *
+ * These hooks are invoked immediately when field_attach_delete() is
+ * called. Similar operations are performed for field_attach_delete_revision().
+ *
+ * When a field, bundle, or field instance is deleted, it is not practical to
+ * invoke these hooks immediately on every affected entity in a single page
+ * request; there could be thousands or millions of them. Instead, the
+ * appropriate field data items, instances, and/or fields are marked as deleted
+ * so that subsequent load or query operations will not return them. Later, a
+ * separate process cleans up, or "purges", the marked-as-deleted data by going
+ * through the three-step process described above and, finally, removing
+ * deleted field and instance records.
+ *
+ * Purging field data is made somewhat tricky by the fact that, while
+ * field_attach_delete() has a complete entity to pass to the various deletion
+ * hooks, the Field API purge process only has the field data it has previously
+ * stored. It cannot reconstruct complete original entities to pass to the
+ * deletion hooks. It is even possible that the original entity to which some
+ * Field API data was attached has been itself deleted before the field purge
+ * operation takes place.
+ *
+ * Field API resolves this problem by using "pseudo-entities" during purge
+ * operations. A pseudo-entity contains only the information from the original
+ * entity that Field API knows about: entity type, id, revision id, and
+ * bundle. It also contains the field data for whichever field instance is
+ * currently being purged. For example, suppose that the node type 'story' used
+ * to contain a field called 'subtitle' but the field was deleted. If node 37
+ * was a story with a subtitle, the pseudo-entity passed to the purge hooks
+ * would look something like this:
+ *
+ * @code
+ * $entity = stdClass Object(
+ * [nid] => 37,
+ * [vid] => 37,
+ * [type] => 'story',
+ * [subtitle] => array(
+ * [0] => array(
+ * 'value' => 'subtitle text',
+ * ),
+ * ),
+ * );
+ * @endcode
+ *
+ * See @link field Field API @endlink for information about the other parts of
+ * the Field API.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Purges a batch of deleted Field API data, instances, or fields.
+ *
+ * This function will purge deleted field data in batches. The batch size
+ * is defined as an argument to the function, and once each batch is finished,
+ * it continues with the next batch until all have completed. If a deleted field
+ * instance with no remaining data records is found, the instance itself will
+ * be purged. If a deleted field with no remaining field instances is found, the
+ * field itself will be purged.
+ *
+ * @param $batch_size
+ * The maximum number of field data records to purge before returning.
+ */
+function field_purge_batch($batch_size) {
+ // Retrieve all deleted field instances. We cannot use field_info_instances()
+ // because that function does not return deleted instances.
+ $instances = field_read_instances(array('deleted' => 1), array('include_deleted' => 1));
+
+ foreach ($instances as $instance) {
+ // field_purge_data() will need the field array.
+ $field = field_info_field_by_id($instance['field_id']);
+ // Retrieve some entities.
+ $query = new EntityFieldQuery();
+ $results = $query
+ ->fieldCondition($field)
+ ->entityCondition('bundle', $instance['bundle'])
+ ->deleted(TRUE)
+ ->range(0, $batch_size)
+ ->execute();
+
+ if ($results) {
+ foreach ($results as $entity_type => $stub_entities) {
+ field_attach_load($entity_type, $stub_entities, FIELD_LOAD_CURRENT, array('field_id' => $field['id'], 'deleted' => 1));
+ foreach ($stub_entities as $stub_entity) {
+ // Purge the data for the entity.
+ field_purge_data($entity_type, $stub_entity, $field, $instance);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ else {
+ // No field data remains for the instance, so we can remove it.
+ field_purge_instance($instance);
+ }
+ }
+
+ // Retrieve all deleted fields. Any that have no instances can be purged.
+ $fields = field_read_fields(array('deleted' => 1), array('include_deleted' => 1));
+ foreach ($fields as $field) {
+ $instances = field_read_instances(array('field_id' => $field['id']), array('include_deleted' => 1));
+ if (empty($instances)) {
+ field_purge_field($field);
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Purges the field data for a single field on a single pseudo-entity.
+ *
+ * This is basically the same as field_attach_delete() except it only applies
+ * to a single field. The entity itself is not being deleted, and it is quite
+ * possible that other field data will remain attached to it.
+ *
+ * @param $entity_type
+ * The type of $entity; e.g. 'node' or 'user'.
+ * @param $entity
+ * The pseudo-entity whose field data is being purged.
+ * @param $field
+ * The (possibly deleted) field whose data is being purged.
+ * @param $instance
+ * The deleted field instance whose data is being purged.
+ */
+function field_purge_data($entity_type, $entity, $field, $instance) {
+ // Each field type's hook_field_delete() only expects to operate on a single
+ // field at a time, so we can use it as-is for purging.
+ $options = array('field_id' => $instance['field_id'], 'deleted' => TRUE);
+ _field_invoke('delete', $entity_type, $entity, $dummy, $dummy, $options);
+
+ // Tell the field storage system to purge the data.
+ module_invoke($field['storage']['module'], 'field_storage_purge', $entity_type, $entity, $field, $instance);
+
+ // Let other modules act on purging the data.
+ foreach (module_implements('field_attach_purge') as $module) {
+ $function = $module . '_field_attach_purge';
+ $function($entity_type, $entity, $field, $instance);
+ }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Purges a field instance record from the database.
+ *
+ * This function assumes all data for the instance has already been purged, and
+ * should only be called by field_purge_batch().
+ *
+ * @param $instance
+ * The instance record to purge.
+ */
+function field_purge_instance($instance) {
+ db_delete('field_config_instance')
+ ->condition('id', $instance['id'])
+ ->execute();
+
+ // Notify the storage engine.
+ $field = field_info_field_by_id($instance['field_id']);
+ module_invoke($field['storage']['module'], 'field_storage_purge_instance', $instance);
+
+ // Clear the cache.
+ field_info_cache_clear();
+
+ // Invoke external hooks after the cache is cleared for API consistency.
+ module_invoke_all('field_purge_instance', $instance);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Purges a field record from the database.
+ *
+ * This function assumes all instances for the field has already been purged,
+ * and should only be called by field_purge_batch().
+ *
+ * @param $field
+ * The field record to purge.
+ */
+function field_purge_field($field) {
+ $instances = field_read_instances(array('field_id' => $field['id']), array('include_deleted' => 1));
+ if (count($instances) > 0) {
+ throw new FieldException(t('Attempt to purge a field @field_name that still has instances.', array('@field_name' => $field['field_name'])));
+ }
+
+ db_delete('field_config')
+ ->condition('id', $field['id'])
+ ->execute();
+
+ // Notify the storage engine.
+ module_invoke($field['storage']['module'], 'field_storage_purge_field', $field);
+
+ // Clear the cache.
+ field_info_cache_clear();
+
+ // Invoke external hooks after the cache is cleared for API consistency.
+ module_invoke_all('field_purge_field', $field);
+}
+
+/**
+ * @} End of "defgroup field_purge".
+ */