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authorTorsten Grote <>2014-01-29 15:00:00 (GMT)
committerTorsten Grote <>2014-01-29 15:00:00 (GMT)
commitd9e4a0f1b5f45b2e3fed0908a69dad264d40b15b (patch)
tree76d774e7d2ce4ba7c0754c590a6b730b6f6ceed9 /
parent5145fb6b6b03f545d7b82db89850dac1b3b49d78 (diff)
add new drupal version
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+ * Requirements and notes
+ * Optional server requirements
+ * Installation
+ * Building and customizing your site
+ * Multisite configuration
+ * More information
+Drupal requires:
+- A web server. Apache (version 2.0 or greater) is recommended.
+- PHP 5.2.4 (or greater) (
+- One of the following databases:
+ - MySQL 5.0.15 (or greater) (
+ - MariaDB 5.1.44 (or greater) ( MariaDB is a fully
+ compatible drop-in replacement for MySQL.
+ - Percona Server 5.1.70 (or greater) ( Percona
+ Server is a backwards-compatible replacement for MySQL.
+ - PostgreSQL 8.3 (or greater) (
+ - SQLite 3.4.2 (or greater) (
+For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of
+PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements"
+( in the online documentation.
+For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using a
+variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
+( in the online documentation.
+Note that all directories mentioned in this document are always relative to the
+directory of your Drupal installation, and commands are meant to be run from
+this directory (except for the initial commands that create that directory).
+- If you want to use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you
+ will need the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess
+ files. For Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Clean URLs with IIS"
+ ( in the online documentation.
+- If you plan to use XML-based services such as RSS aggregation, you will need
+ PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default on most PHP
+ installations.
+- To serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files on an Apache web server, you will
+ need the mod_headers module and the ability to use local .htaccess files.
+- Some Drupal functionality (e.g., checking whether Drupal and contributed
+ modules need updates, RSS aggregation, etc.) require that the web server be
+ able to go out to the web and download information. If you want to use this
+ functionality, you need to verify that your hosting provider or server
+ configuration allows the web server to initiate outbound connections. Most web
+ hosting setups allow this.
+1. Download and extract Drupal.
+ You can obtain the latest Drupal release from -- the files
+ are available in .tar.gz and .zip formats and can be extracted using most
+ compression tools.
+ To download and extract the files, on a typical Unix/Linux command line, use
+ the following commands (assuming you want version x.y of Drupal in .tar.gz
+ format):
+ wget
+ tar -zxvf drupal-x.y.tar.gz
+ This will create a new directory drupal-x.y/ containing all Drupal files and
+ directories. Then, to move the contents of that directory into a directory
+ within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory,
+ continue with this command:
+ mv drupal-x.y/* drupal-x.y/.htaccess /path/to/your/installation
+2. Optionally, download a translation.
+ By default, Drupal is installed in English, and further languages may be
+ installed later. If you prefer to install Drupal in another language
+ initially:
+ - Download a translation file for the correct Drupal version and language
+ from the translation server:
+ - Place the file into your installation profile's translations directory.
+ For instance, if you are using the Standard installation profile,
+ move the .po file into the directory:
+ profiles/standard/translations/
+ For detailed instructions, visit
+3. Create the Drupal database.
+ Because Drupal stores all site information in a database, you must create
+ this database in order to install Drupal, and grant Drupal certain database
+ privileges (such as the ability to create tables). For details, consult
+ INSTALL.mysql.txt, INSTALL.pgsql.txt, or INSTALL.sqlite.txt. You may also
+ need to consult your web hosting provider for instructions specific to your
+ web host.
+ Take note of the username, password, database name, and hostname as you
+ create the database. You will enter this information during the install.
+4. Run the install script.
+ To run the install script, point your browser to the base URL of your
+ website (e.g.,
+ You will be guided through several screens to set up the database, add the
+ site maintenance account (the first user, also known as user/1), and provide
+ basic web site settings.
+ During installation, several files and directories need to be created, which
+ the install script will try to do automatically. However, on some hosting
+ environments, manual steps are required, and the install script will tell
+ you that it cannot proceed until you fix certain issues. This is normal and
+ does not indicate a problem with your server.
+ The most common steps you may need to perform are:
+ a. Missing files directory.
+ The install script will attempt to create a file storage directory in
+ the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the files
+ directory may be changed after Drupal is installed).
+ If auto-creation fails, you can make it work by changing permissions on
+ the sites/default directory so that the web server can create the files
+ directory within it for you. (If you are creating a multisite
+ installation, substitute the correct sites directory for sites/default;
+ see the Multisite Configuration section of this file, below.)
+ For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can grant everyone
+ (including the web server) permission to write to the sites/default
+ directory with this command:
+ chmod a+w sites/default
+ Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
+ Sample command:
+ chmod go-w sites/default
+ Alternatively, instead of allowing the web server to create the files
+ directory for you as described above, you can create it yourself. Sample
+ commands from a Unix/Linux command line:
+ mkdir sites/default/files
+ chmod a+w sites/default/files
+ b. Missing settings file.
+ Drupal will try to automatically create a settings.php configuration file,
+ which is normally in the directory sites/default (to avoid problems when
+ upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with this file). If auto-creation fails,
+ you will need to create this file yourself, using the file
+ sites/default/default.settings.php as a template.
+ For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can make a copy of the
+ default.settings.php file with the command:
+ cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
+ Next, grant write privileges to the file to everyone (including the web
+ server) with the command:
+ chmod a+w sites/default/settings.php
+ Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
+ Sample command:
+ chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
+ c. Write permissions after install.
+ The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
+ the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. If this
+ fails, you will be notified, and you can do it manually. Sample commands
+ from a Unix/Linux command line:
+ chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
+ chmod go-w sites/default
+5. Verify that the site is working.
+ When the install script finishes, you will be logged in with the site
+ maintenance account on a "Welcome" page. If the default Drupal theme is not
+ displaying properly and links on the page result in "Page Not Found" errors,
+ you may be experiencing problems with clean URLs. Visit
+ to troubleshoot.
+6. Change file system storage settings (optional).
+ The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used to
+ store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by
+ Drupal. After installation, you can modify the file system path to store
+ uploaded files in a different location.
+ It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
+ - Your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase (modify
+ the file system path of each installation to a different directory so that
+ uploads do not overlap between installations).
+ - Your site runs on a number of web servers behind a load balancer or reverse
+ proxy (modify the file system path on each server to point to a shared file
+ repository).
+ - You want to restrict access to uploaded files.
+ To modify the file system path:
+ a. Ensure that the new location for the path exists and is writable by the
+ web server. For example, to create a new directory named uploads and grant
+ write permissions, use the following commands on a Unix/Linux command
+ line:
+ mkdir uploads
+ chmod a+w uploads
+ b. Navigate to Administration > Configuration > Media > File system, and
+ enter the desired path. Note that if you want to use private file storage,
+ you need to first enter the path for private files and save the
+ configuration, and then change the "Default download method" setting and
+ save again.
+ Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
+ unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
+ on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
+ to the new location.
+7. Revoke documentation file permissions (optional).
+ Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
+ CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
+ running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
+ this optional security measure, from a Unix/Linux command line you can use
+ the following command:
+ chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt
+ Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide all
+ documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of the
+ Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
+ name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.
+ For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux,
+ Unix, and Mac file permissions" ( or
+ "Modifying Windows file permissions" ( in the
+ online documentation.
+8. Set up independent "cron" maintenance jobs.
+ Many Drupal modules have tasks that must be run periodically, including the
+ Search module (building and updating the index used for keyword searching),
+ the Aggregator module (retrieving feeds from other sites), and the System
+ module (performing routine maintenance and pruning of database tables). These
+ tasks are known as "cron maintenance tasks", named after the Unix/Linux
+ "cron" utility.
+ When you install Drupal, its built-in cron feature is enabled, which
+ automatically runs the cron tasks periodically, triggered by people visiting
+ pages of your site. You can configure the built-in cron feature by navigating
+ to Administration > Configuration > System > Cron.
+ It is also possible to run the cron tasks independent of site visits; this is
+ recommended for most sites. To do this, you will need to set up an automated
+ process to visit the page cron.php on your site, which executes the cron
+ tasks.
+ The URL of the cron.php page requires a "cron key" to protect against
+ unauthorized access. Your site's cron key is automatically generated during
+ installation and is specific to your site. The full URL of the page, with the
+ cron key, is available in the "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the Status
+ report page at Administration > Reports > Status report.
+ As an example for how to set up this automated process, you can use the
+ crontab utility on Unix/Linux systems. The following crontab line uses the
+ wget command to visit the cron.php page, and runs each hour, on the hour:
+ 0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1
+ Replace the text "" in the
+ example with the full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the
+ "Status report" page.
+ More information about cron maintenance tasks is available at
+, and sample cron shell scripts can be found in the
+ scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be customized like the
+ above example, to add your site-specific cron key and domain name.)
+A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration. To extend
+your site, you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds
+functionality to Drupal, while a theme changes the look of your site. The core
+of Drupal provides several optional modules and themes, and you can download
+more at and
+Do not mix downloaded or custom modules and themes with Drupal's core modules
+and themes. Drupal's modules and themes are located in the top-level modules and
+themes directories, while the modules and themes you add to Drupal are normally
+placed in the sites/all/modules and sites/all/themes directories. If you run a
+multisite installation, you can also place modules and themes in the
+site-specific directories -- see the Multisite Configuration section, below.
+Never edit Drupal's core modules and themes; instead, use the hooks available in
+the Drupal API. To modify the behavior of Drupal, develop a module as described
+at To modify the look of Drupal, create a
+subtheme as described at, or a completely new
+theme as described at
+A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with
+its own individual configuration.
+Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites'
+directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file, which specifies
+the configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to
+copy the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.php' file as appropriate.
+The new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration for could be in 'sites/' (note that 'www.'
+should be omitted if users can access your site at
+Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and
+subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example,,, and can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The setup
+for a configuration such as this would look like the following:
+ sites/default/settings.php
+ sites/
+ sites/
+ sites/
+When searching for a site configuration (for example,
+Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the
+first configuration it finds:
+ sites/
+ sites/
+ sites/
+ sites/
+ sites/
+ sites/
+ sites/default/settings.php
+If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the
+deepest subdomain. For example: could be loaded
+from sites/ The port number will be removed according to
+the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real
+Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in
+addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories.
+To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes'
+directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be
+accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this:
+ sites/
+ settings.php
+ themes/custom_theme
+ modules/custom_module
+NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration
+settings, consult
+For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multisite
+configuration, see step 6 above.
+- See the online documentation:
+- For a list of security announcements, see the "Security advisories" page at
+ (available as an RSS feed). This page also
+ describes how to subscribe to these announcements via e-mail.
+- For information about the Drupal security process, or to find out how to
+ report a potential security issue to the Drupal security team, see the
+ "Security team" page at
+- For information about the wide range of available support options, visit
+ and click on Community and Support in the top or bottom
+ navigation.